PARISS®: Prism And Reflector Imaging Spectroscopy System Basics
Imaging Spectroscopy Requires a Highly Efficient Imaging Spectrometer
The PARISS imaging spectroscopy system is based on a prism imaging spectrometer: Unlike a diffraction grating that splits light into multiple diffraction orders, a prism delivers 90% of spectral intensity directly to the detector. This ensures the highest possible signal to noise ratio (S/N). Go here for details.
Lightweight and compact, a PARISS system can be interfaced with a microscope for hyperspectral microscopy, or a variety of lens systems for application-specific spectral and hyperspectral imaging.
The PARISS Prism: The Unique Curved Sides Dramatically Increase Sensitivity
In order to increase instrument sensitivity, diffraction grating designs were discarded in favor of a prism-based system. The PARISS design was originally developed by The Aerospace Corporation for airborne remote sensing. After redesign, the PARISS imaging spectrometer emerged as an ideal instrument for use in any laboratory.
The curved sides of the prism add optical power to deliver near aberration-free imaging, from 365 up to 1,000-nm.
The net result is a highly significant improvement in signal to noise ratio (S/N) when compared to diffraction grating solutions. Enhanced sensitivity extends into the near IR where detectors and visible diffraction gratings are at their lowest efficiency. See here for details.
Spectrum cameras: Located at the focus of the imaging spectrometer, the camera records the sample spectra. Spectrum cameras are chosen as a function of anticipated signal strength.
LightForm partners with camera manufacturers that supply the appropriate camera consistent with an application.
Zoom light-collection optics: LightForm integrates lenses optimized for the application. For example, microscope objectives may be necessary for biopsy samples, while telephoto lenses would be used to image ponds polluted with deadly cyanobacteria. There is no one lens solution that fits all applications.
LightForm specializes in developing zoom magnification optics that eliminate the need for multiple lenses or objectives. While zoom camera lenses are commonplace most, if not all de-magnify a field of view (FOV). PARISS zoom magnification optics accommodates objects that are less than one micron in size. Go here for details:
Software: PARISS software is written in Python, with spectroscopy utilities that include: %reflection, absorption, %transmission, fluorescence, luminescence… Math functions include smoothing, background subtraction, division, multiplication, noise reduction… Go here for details
Spectral classification: Spectra present that can be associated with objects or conditions are assembled into classes. Selected classes can then be added to a “Reference Spectral Library.” Correlation functions enable the extent of a class to be controlled and optimized.
Reference spectral libraries (RSL): RSLs consist of a collection of spectral classes consistent with a given application or sample type. RSLs can be created, added to, or edited. Spectral classes can be named and pseudo-colored
Spectrarecognition algorithms: Enables objects in new samples to be “recognized” by correlating their spectra with those in an RSL. A recognized object acquires the pseudo-color of the associated RSL component class.
How PARISS Analytical Hyperspectral Imaging Works
How PARISS Hyperspectral Wavelength Dispersive Imaging Works